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 Introduction Obesity is a complicated illness characterized by an excess of body fat. Obesity is more than an aesthetic issue. It's a m...


Obesity is a complicated illness characterized by an excess of body fat. Obesity is more than an aesthetic issue. It's a medical condition that raises your chance of developing other diseases and health issues including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and some malignancies.

There are a variety of reasons why some people struggle to lose weight. Obesity is usually caused by a combination of genetic, physiological, and environmental variables, as well as dietary, physical activity, and exercise decisions.

The good news is that even small weight loss can help or avoid obesity-related health issues. Weight loss can be aided by a better diet, greater physical activity, and behavioral changes. Obesity can also be treated with prescription medicines and weight-loss surgeries.


Obesity is frequently diagnosed using the body mass index (BMI). To find your BMI, multiply your weight in pounds by 703, divide by your height in inches, and then divide by your height in inches again. Alternatively, multiply your weight in kilos by your height in meters squared.

Asians with a BMI of 23 or above are at a higher risk of developing health issues.

BMI gives a fair measure of body fat for the majority of people. However, because BMI does not directly measure body fat, certain persons, such as strong athletes, may have a BMI that falls into the obese group while having no extra body fat.

A person's waist circumference is often measured by doctors to aid with treatment decisions. Men with a waist circumference of more than 40 inches (102 cm) and women with a waist circumference of more than 35 inches are more likely to have weight-related health issues (89 centimeters).

When should you see a doctor?

Ask your doctor about obesity management if you're concerned about your weight or weight-related health concerns. You and your doctor can discuss your weight-loss choices and assess your health risks.


Obesity develops when you consume more calories than you burn via regular everyday activity and exercise, despite genetic, behavioral, metabolic, and hormonal factors on body weight. These extra calories are stored as fat in your body.

Most people's diets in the United States are excessively calorie-dense, owing to fast food and high-calorie drinks. Obese people may consume more calories before feeling satisfied, feel hungry sooner, or eat more as a result of stress or worry.

Many individuals in Western nations today work in professions that aren't as physically demanding, therefore they don't burn as many calories at work. Because of conveniences like remote controls, escalators, internet shopping, and drive-through banking, even ordinary tasks consume fewer calories.

Factors that are at risk

Obesity is generally the consequence of a combination of causes and factors:

Inheritance and effects from family

The amount of body fat you retain and where that fat is distributed may be influenced by the genes you receive from your parents. Genetics may also influence how effectively your body turns food into energy, how your hunger is controlled, and how calories are burned during activity.

Obesity is a trait that runs through families. That isn't only due to the fact that they have the same DNA. Family members have a tendency to eat and exercise in comparable ways.

Lifestyle choices

Unhealthy eating habits. Weight gain is caused by a diet that is high in calories, low in fruits and vegetables, high in fast food, and heavy in high-calorie beverages and large portions.

Calories from liquids. Many calories, especially calories from alcohol, can be consumed without feeling full. Other high-calorie beverages, such as sugared soft drinks, can also contribute to weight gain.

Inactivity. If you lead a sedentary lifestyle, you're likely to consume more calories per day than you burn via exercise and daily activities. Sedentary behaviour includes staring at computers, tablets, and phone screens. The amount of time spent in front of a screen is strongly linked to weight gain.

Certain medical conditions and medicines

Obesity can be linked to medical disorders including Prader-Willi syndrome, Cushing syndrome, and others in some persons. Medical issues, such as arthritis, can also cause a reduction in exercise, which can contribute to weight gain.

If you don't adjust with diet or exercise, certain medicines might cause weight gain. Some antidepressants, anti-seizure medicines, diabetic meds, antipsychotic medications, steroids, and beta-blockers are among these medications.

Economic and social concerns

Obesity is connected to social and economic issues. Obesity is difficult to avoid if there are no safe places to stroll or exercise. Similarly, you may not have been taught appropriate cooking techniques or have limited access to healthier foods. Furthermore, the individuals you spend time with might have an impact on your weight - if you have obese friends or family, you're more likely to develop obesity.


Obesity may strike anybody at any age, including children. Hormonal changes and a less active lifestyle, however, raise your risk of obesity as you get older. Furthermore, as you become older, your body's muscular mass decreases. Lower muscular mass is associated with a slower metabolism. These modifications also lower calorie requirements, making it more difficult to lose weight. You'll acquire weight if you don't carefully regulate what you eat and become more physically active as you get older.

Other considerations

Pregnancy. During pregnancy, the weight increase is typical. After the baby is delivered, some women find it difficult to shed weight. Women's obesity may be exacerbated by this weight increase.

Smoking cessation. Weight gain is frequently linked to quitting smoking. It can also lead to obesity in certain people. This frequently occurs when people turn to food to help them cope with the withdrawal symptoms of smoking cessation. However, stopping smoking has a longer-term health advantage than continuing to smoke. After you quit smoking, your doctor can help you avoid gaining weight. a number of variables

Sleep deprivation. Changes in hormones that enhance hunger can be caused by not getting enough sleep or sleeping too much. You may also want high-calorie, high-carbohydrate meals, which can lead to weight gain.

Stress. Obesity may be influenced by a variety of extrinsic variables that impact mood and well-being. When people are stressed, they tend to crave more high-calorie foods.

Microbiome. What you consume has an impact on your gut bacteria, which can lead to weight gain or difficulties reducing weight.

Even if you have one or more of these risk factors, you are not doomed to become obese. Diet, physical activity and exercise, and behavioural changes can all help to reduce risk factors.


Obese people are more prone to acquire a variety of potentially significant health issues, such as:

Strokes and heart disease are two of the most common causes of death in the United States Obesity increases the risk of high blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels, both of which are risk factors for heart disease and stroke.

Kind 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. Obesity can alter how the body uses insulin to keep blood sugar levels under control. Insulin resistance and diabetes are more likely as a result of this.

Certain types of cancer. Cancers of the uterus, cervix, endometrium, ovary, breast, colon, rectum, oesophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidney, and prostate are all linked to obesity.

Problems with digestion. Heartburn, gallbladder illness, and liver issues are all more common in obese people.

Apnea (sleep deprivation). Obese people are more prone to suffer from sleep apnea, a potentially fatal condition in which breathing frequently stops and begins while sleeping.
Osteoarthritis. Obesity increases the amount of stress imposed on weight-bearing joints while also causing inflammation in the body. Complications such as osteoarthritis may result from these causes.

COVID-19 symptoms are severe. If you are infected with the virus that causes coronavirus illness, you're more likely to develop severe symptoms if you're obese (COVID-19). Severe instances of COVID-19 may necessitate treatment in critical care facilities or possibly mechanical breathing support.

Life satisfaction

Obesity can have a negative impact on one's overall quality of life. It's possible that you won't be able to participate in physical activities that you used to like. You may want to avoid going to public areas. Obese people may face prejudice as a result of their condition.

Other weight-related concerns that might have an impact on your quality of life are:

1. Depression.
2. Disability.
3. Shame and remorse.
4. Isolation from others.
5. Work productivity is lower.

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